Wednesday, July 29, 2020

Techniques to Tame the Fight or Flight Response

Techniques to Tame the Fight or Flight Response Bipolar Disorder Symptoms Mania and Hypomania Print Taming the Fight or Flight Response By Marcia Purse Marcia Purse is a mental health writer and bipolar disorder advocate who brings strong research skills and personal experiences to her writing. Learn about our editorial policy Marcia Purse Updated on September 17, 2019 PhotoAlto/John Dowland / Getty Images More in Bipolar Disorder Symptoms Mania and Hypomania Depression Diagnosis Treatment When faced with a situation that causes extreme anxiety or fear, our bodies will respond with a sudden display of physiological symptoms including a racing heart, tensed muscles, balled fists, pupil dilation, and shallow, rapid breathing. These physical reactions are what we call the fight or flight response (also known as hyperarousal or acute stress response). This is when the perception of a threat triggers a cascade of physiological changes as the brain sets off an alarm throughout the central nervous system. As a result, the adrenal glands will start pumping out hormones, called adrenalin and noradrenalin, which place the body on high alert to either confront the threat (fight) or leave as quickly as possible (flight). These physiological changes are not incidental but rather serve specific, important functions: Rapid pulse and respiration increase oxygen intake for rapid or prolonged action.The conversion of the bodys fuel source (glycogen) to fuel (glucose) allows for a burst of energy in muscles.The dilation of the pupils is considered an evolutionary response meant to allow more light into the eye to see better at night. The fight or flight response is reflexive, allowing us to act before thinking (such as slamming on the brakes to avoid an accident). When the Fight or Flight Response Is Abnormal While the fight or flight response is a vital self-defense mechanism, some people have an overly sensitive response. For these individuals, the physiological features occur either far too frequently or inappropriately. There may be several reasons for this: An imbalance in brain hormones such as anxiety and bipolar disorders??Post-traumatic distressA history of verbal or physical abuse It is not only exhausting to spend so much time in a state of high alert, but it can also be physically damaging. The physical consequences of acute stress can include high blood pressure, migraine headaches, and the exacerbation of fibromyalgia, chronic gastritis, and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) symptoms. Treatment In those with an abnormal fight or flight response, treatment more often involves counseling and psychotherapy to better identify the psychological or psychiatric roots. In some cases, pharmaceutical treatment may be indicated, particularly if related to severe anxiety or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).?? In other cases, self-help techniques may help alleviate the involuntary physiological symptoms associated with the fight or flight response. One such technique involves a three-part breathing exercise which allows a person to voluntarily slow the breathing, the action of which can also bring down both the heart rate and adrenaline response.?? The exercise, which incorporates some of the technique of pranayama breathing in yoga, involves six basic steps: Find a place thats quiet. Turn off the phone and close doors and curtains.Sit in a straight-back chair with both feet on the ground, or lie on the floor.Place your right hand on your stomach and your left hand on your rib cage so that you can physically feel your inhalation and exhalation.Start inhaling by expanding the belly outward, allowing it to inflate like a balloon.Next, move your breath into the rib cage and all the way into the upper chest.Exhale by reversing this action, contracting your abdominal muscles as you finish. You can practice this in one-minute intervals with the aim of gradually increasing to five minutes. The practice may not only help alleviate acute attacks but can be used as a means of de-stressing as part of a daily routine. Other non-prescription treatment options include valerian and passionflower (herbal supplements commonly used as non-addictive relaxants)?? and B-complex which may help regulate stress chemical produced by the brain.?? The avoidance of caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine is also recommended. How to Use Relaxation Techniques

Friday, May 22, 2020

Will Electronic Technology Make Printed Books Obsolete

Will Electronic Technology Make Printed Books Obsolete? The world has gone through a lot of technological advancements in the last hundred years. Scientists have even managed to construct an air vehicle and successfully ride it. The invention of the computer was another important landmark in the human history. The Internet has come along and radically changed the methods of human communication. Scientists call it the Information Age. However, will innovative technologies ever replace the book or the written word as a main source of information? This is quite an interesting question that is often asked when some new invention is made in technology. When television was invented, most people prophesied that the radio would become obsolete. Nevertheless, all those prophecies have failed. When computers became popular, many people feared that it can decrease the number of work places. They thought that this new machine would eventually replace human labor. However, we all know that computers have created more jobs, and technicians are finding new applications for computers every day.

Saturday, May 9, 2020

The Undergraduate School of Education Application Essay Samples Cover Up

The Undergraduate School of Education Application Essay Samples Cover Up What You Need to Do About Undergraduate School of Education Application Essay Samples Starting in the Next Eight Minutes Make certain not to miss any important pieces, and, needless to say, don't forget to be sure it stays individual reveal how precisely you have come from your research data to your conclusions. In order to correctly plan your time in the coming months, first read through each application which you plan to submit to figure out the quantity and nature of the essays you will have to write. You could then end to your educational or career background associated with your application. To begin with, you include all of the information which you have gathered, then you slice off the less relevant and meaningful pieces until you get to the essential volume, thus refining the outcome. Within this instance, how you organize the letter might vary widely, based on what you're attempting to say and th e story you've got to tell. Because that undertaking is intimidating, it's often hard to choose where to get started. Just as you ought to do during the undergraduate school application procedure or with a work opening, give the men and women you are asking enough time to compose a thoughtful letter. What to Do About Undergraduate School of Education Application Essay Samples With the assistance of certain on-line resources, like this one, you receive a chance to download various books and manuals in the most effective way. Looking for rare books on the internet can be torturous, but it doesn't have to be like that. Almost all of examples are posted as a member of writing guides published on the internet by educational institutions. Firstly, and above all, you won't have the ability to locate such a huge range of unique materials anywhere else, including PDF books. The Undergraduate School of Education Application Essay Samples Game Pharmacy school isn't about learning how to fill medications and making plenty of money. Advancing the area of nursing is not simply a professional success, but a personal success too. You might find out that what you feel you want as a nursing career, isn't really what you desire! You can receive a complete collection of expert nursing organizations at Nurse.org. Based on how well you communicate, I may be able to realize your passion for nursing and your future, too. What's more, nurse practitioners are getting to be the doctors of tomorrow in the middle of an overall physician shortage. You have to high-light your abilities and show the school you've got the ambition to learn what they are able to teach you. The shortage of competent professors in the locale of nursing will perpetuate the lack of university degreed healthcare professionals in the business. Inside my experience, Quakers are genuinely delighted to respond to your questions whenever you have a shared interest. Being aware of what to expect after you graduate can help you choose which program to apply for and allow you to target your statement or essay in a manner that will present your commitment. Consider why it is you are applying to the school in the very first location, and brainstorm, picking a few ideas that you could elaborate on in an essay. If you are trying to compose a nursing school essay, this will provide help. Therefore, if you don't feel confident about your writing skills or don't have any opportunity to compose your own nursing essay properly, you may always get online and try to find some customized essay writing services. By doing that the student stays true to the very first paragraph in supplying a very clear direction throughout the whole essay. You must make the essay school-specific. If you find and deal with the best one, you can be certain your essay is going to be to the point, well-written, and delivered in time. Your essay is going to be required to be of a specific quantity. Review the prompt thoroughly and plan your essay before you get started writing to make sure that you make an essay which will be an effective and persuasive accession to your application package. New Step by Step Roadmap for Undergraduate School of Education Application Essay Samples Many schools want to understand why a student is applying to that specific college. You can and ought to mention the specific school to which you're applying. Our students are inclined to be practiced professionals that are really committed to making a difference. Every high school student has to experience the difficult procedure for filling out college applications. Up in Arms About Undergraduate School of Education Application Essay Samples? If you don' t, it's possible to actually hurt your odds of admission. On the flip side, a fantastic essay or private statement will enable you to stand out and boost your opportunity of getting admitted, even if other components of your application aren't stellar. Solely by performing an excellent research can you gather the sufficient foundation for writing a fantastic admission essay. If you're asking for a BSN program your written statement may be known as a personal statement rather than an essay. What to Expect From Undergraduate School of Education Application Essay Samples? Then an alternate strategy, like your own personal story, might be a good tactic. While writing is always a helpful skill, it's clearly not critical to the job of a nurse. Many people can relate to the angst of attempting to assemble an admissions-winning composition. This is sometimes a fantastic tactic, but you have to make certain that you use essay samples the right way.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Adaptation of Archaea to Acidity Free Essays

The adaptation of archaea in acidic condition. How archaea adapt to acidic environment ? Use variety pH homeostatic mechanism that involve restricting proton entry by cytoplasmic membrane and purging of protons and their effect by cytoplasm. pH homeostatic mechanisms The cell membrane is highly impermeable to protons Membrane channel have a reduced pore size. We will write a custom essay sample on The Adaptation of Archaea to Acidity or any similar topic only for you Order Now Protein influx inhibited by chemiosmotic gradient Excess proton pumped out of the cell Cytoplasmic buffering helps to maintain the intracellular pH 1. The cell membrane is highly impermeable to protons High impermeable cell membrane to restrict proton influx into the cytoplasm Example : Archaeal-specific structures composed of tetraether lipids . Thermoplasma acidophilum, Ferroplasma acidiphilum, sulfolobus solfataricus. Factor causing low permeability of acidophile membranes. Monolayer composed of unique â€Å"tetraether lipids† in which two hydrophilic heads attached to the same hydrophobic tail through ether bonds – more stable, less fluid Bulky isoprenoid core. Ether linkage characteristic of these membranes less sensative to acid hydrolysis than ester linkage. 2. Membrane channel have a reduced pore size. Control size of the entrance to the pore and the ion selectivity at the porin entrance. Control influx of proton across the outer membrane 3. Protein influx inhibited by chemiosmotic gradient Inhibit the influx of protons using a chemiosmotic barrier against the proton gradient (higher ? lower) Chemiosmosis : diffusion of hydrogen ion across the biological membrane via transport protein due to a proton gradient that form on the other side of the membrane. 4. Excess proton pumped out of the cell Active proton pumping Remove excess protons from cytoplasm and balance the pH value in cell. Sequences acidophile genomes have proton efflux systems. 5. Cytoplasmic buffering helps to maintain the intracellular pH Intracellular mechanism help to improve the ensuing biological damage. Cytoplasmic buffer molecules that have basic amino acids capable of sequestering protons. Thus maintain the pH in cytoplasm. References 1. D. B. Johnson, K. B. Hallberg The microbiology of acidic mine waters Res. Microbiol. , 154 (2003), pp. 466–473 2. G. K. Druschel  et al. Acid mine drainage biogeochemistry at Iron Mountain California. Geochem. Trans. , 5 (2004), pp. 13–32 3. T. Rohwerder  et al. Bioleaching review part A. Progress in bioleaching: fundamentals and mechanisms of bacterial metal sulfide oxidation Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. , 63 (2003), pp. 239–248 How to cite The Adaptation of Archaea to Acidity, Papers

Wednesday, April 29, 2020

The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat free essay sample

The Man Who Mistook His Wife For a Hat What is completely amazing is that with these conditions attacking his mental abilities Dr. P was able to function and continue working with his music students. The left side of the brain controls four very important everyday functions. Listening, calculations, logic and analysis. The author makes a very interesting observation. Neurology and psychology discuss many facets and explanations of our mental processes but almost never talk of â€Å"judgment†. However, whether in a philosophic sense or an empirical and evolutionary sense, judgment is the most important faculty we have. Judgment must be the first faculty of higher life or mind, yet it is ignored or misinterpreted by classical neurology. After several examinations Dr. Sacks concluded Dr. P was not capable of describing a glove properly. A five year old can describe a glove. Dr. P was completely lost in attempting the six faces put in front of him. We will write a custom essay sample on The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Evidently there was difficulty in some of the attributes of the right side of the brain also. When questioned by Dr. P as to what was wrong with him and what recommendations he would make Dr. Sacks replied in this way; I can’t tell you what I find wrong with you, but I’ll l say what I find right. You are wonderful musician and music is your life. In a case like yours, you must make music your whole life. That was the last time Dr. Sacks saw Dr. P. The brain is a machine and a computer. With one major difference. Our mental processes which constitute our being and life are not abstract and mechanical, but personal as well. This means we not only classify and categorize but we continue to judge and feel. If this is missing there is another Dr. P on the horizon. In his introduction Dr. Sacks makes one important reference to the right side of the brain to use his terminology the â€Å"right hemisphere†, in relationship to direct consciousness. The listings include emotion, conceptual daydreaming, creativity, and everyday functions, taken for granted, until something goes amiss. Then the right becomes as important as the left. Especially in the patient doctor relationship. References The Man Who Mistook His Wife For a Hat By Dr. Oliver Sacks Published By Simon amp; Schuster New York

Friday, March 20, 2020

The Public Relations Practitioner as Cultural Intermediary Essay Example

The Public Relations Practitioner as Cultural Intermediary Essay Example The Public Relations Practitioner as Cultural Intermediary Essay The Public Relations Practitioner as Cultural Intermediary Essay symbolic interactionism, and ethnomethodology. Babbie and Mouton (2001:33) conclude that regardless of the related metatheory, the primary aim of interpretivism stays directed towards understanding: â€Å"understanding of individuals in terms of their own interpretations of reality and understanding of society in terms of the meanings which people ascribe to the social practices in that society†. Following will be a discussion of hermeneutics as a related metatheory to interpretivism. 3. 2. 1. 1 Hermeneutics as a metatheory The term â€Å"hermeneutics† is defined as â€Å"the science and methodology of interpreting texts† by the Encarta Dictionary (S. a. ). De Vos, Schultze and Patel (2005:6) states only hermeneutics as a related metatheory to interpretive social science, but Babbie and Mouton (2001:30) lists several related metatheories such as hermeneutics, symbolic interactionism, and ethnomethodology. In the process of understanding the nature of human inquiry, Dilthey used the term â€Å"hermeneutics† increasingly. â€Å"In the same way that we understand the meaning of texts through interpretation, we should aim to interpret the ideas, purposes and other mental states expressed in the world of human action† (Babbie and Mouton, 2001:31). De Vos, Schultze and Patel (2005:7) agree that â€Å"true meaning is rarely simple or obvious on the surface; one reaches it only through a detailed study of the text, contemplating its many messages and seeking the connections among its parts†. Babbie and Mouton (2001:33) further states that in an idealist epistemology, data collection should not be confined to observable behaviour, but should also include descriptions of people’s intentions, meanings, and reasons. Culture in this instance will substitute â€Å"people† in Babbie and Mouton’s definition. The emphasis thus is on interpretive understanding of the culture. Concluded from the information stated above, an interpretive approach would be most suitable to research the role of the public relations manager as cultural intermediary. . Postmodernism, globalization and culture in communication: a brief discussion 4. 1 Postmodern communication At approximately the same time that South Africa proceeded to become a democracy, a new movement, postmodernism, emerged. Postmodernism embodies a complicated term, which has only emerged as an area of academic study since the mid-1980’s and is a general, wide-ranging term which is applied to literature, art, philosophy, architecture, fiction, cultural and literary criticism, and communication. Postmodernism is largely a reaction to the assumed certainty of scientific (objective) efforts to explain reality. In essence, it stems from a recognition that reality is not simply mirrored in human understanding of it, but rather, is constructed as the mind tries to understand its own particular and personal reality. For this reason, postmodernism is highly sceptical of explanations which claim to be valid for all groups, cultures, traditions, or races, and instead focuses on the relative truths of each person. Postmodernism relies on concrete experience over abstract principles, knowing always that the outcome of ones own experience will necessarily be fallible and relative, rather than certain and universal. According to Steyn (2002:25), the postmodernism approach to society (and the individual’s place in it) comprises many different elements of which the most prominent aspect is the fragmented nature of society. Postmodernism is, to a large extent, a rejection of modernism. Whilst modernism is optimistic about the future and embraces progress and humanist value, postmodernism take a cynical approach towards these â€Å"values†. In addition, De Vos, Schultze and Patel (2005:8) emphasize that modernism has confidence in technology and science whilst postmodernism attacks this faith in science â€Å"by questioning its capacity to generate truth, in part because, like all human communications, it is dependent on language, which is socially constructed, and, as such, distorts reality†. Considering the above and the questions posed in the introduction of this assignment, it could be argued that the disarray in the contemporary corporate society is largely due to the postmodern reflection on society and not as such due to any hierarchal incompetence. For the past three decades, postmodernism dominated the cultural and intellectual scene in many fields throughout the world. The postmodern assault produced new social and political theories, as well as theoretical attempts to define the multifaceted aspects of the postmodern phenomenon itself, which in turn, seems aptly applicable to the current multi-cultural experience in South Africa. 4. 2 Globalization and communication Globalization refers to the compression of the world and the intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole (www. sociology. emory. du). In thought and action, it makes the world a single place. What it means to live in this place, and how it must be ordered, become universal questions. These questions receive different answers from individuals and societies that define their position in relation to both a system of societies and the shared properties of humankind from very different perspectives. Globalization broadly refers to the expansion of global linkages, the organization of social life on a global scale, and the growth of a global consciousness, hence to the consolidation of a world society. In concept, globalization is, contrary to contemporary belief, not a new one. The modern world-system originated around 1500. In parts of Western Europe, a long-term crisis of feudalism gave way to technological innovation and the rise of market institutions. Advances in production and incentives for long-distance trade stimulated Europeans to reach other parts of the globe. Superior military strength and means of transportation enabled them to establish economic ties with other regions that favoured the accumulation of wealth in the European core. While the Europeans started with only small advantages, they exploited these to reshape the world in their capitalist image. The world as a whole is now devoted to endless accumulation and profit seeking on the basis of exchange in a market that treats goods and labour alike as commodities. (www. sociology. emory. edu). The magnitude and the impact of globalization on world trade is illustrated by Friedman (2005:181-182) who developed and interesting perspective that, due to globalization, the world has become â€Å"flat†. In the last decade of the twentieth century, several parts of the world were making the transition from a closed economy to a free market system, such as China, India, Russia, and Eastern Europe. By 2000, the â€Å"global economic world,† the amount of the world’s population participating in global trade, reached six billion people, compared to 2. 5 billion in 1985. As it happened, this coincided with the digital revolution that was â€Å"flat tening† the world, thus not only leveling the playing field, but also bringing that field directly to these new players†. Philosophers such as Marshall McLuhan (1911-1980) predicted, if not recognized, globalization in the way society is experiencing it today, as early as the 1960’s. It was during this time period when McLuhan both announced the existence of a â€Å"global village†, and predicted the intensification of the world community to its present expression. â€Å"If the work of the city is the remaking or translating of man into a more suitable form than his nomadic ancestors achieved, then might not our current translation of our entire lives into the spiritual form of information seem to make of the entire globe, and of the human family, a single consciousness? (McLuhan, as quoted by Kappelman, www. leaderu. com). All of this was supposed at a time when television was still in its infancy, and the personal computer was almost twenty years into the future. Globalization in its current status is largely due to interconnectedness via satellite and cable connection. The majority of mass- and interpersonal communication today is transmitted through the effective use of information technology. The result, according to Hannerz (2001:62) is that a great many kinds of actors now operate, if not literally globally, then at least transnational. There are more â€Å"ethnic diasporas† than ever before, dispersed membership groups, multinational business corporations and transnational occupational communities, each one engaged in â€Å"its own particular way in the management of some part of contemporary culture†. Hannerz’ view underlines the importance of a public relations practitioner acting as a cultural intermediary within a globalized society. 4. 3 Multi-cultural communication Ramphele (2008:112-113) states that â€Å"all South Africans are newcomers to democracy. We (South Africans) must acknowledge our authoritarian political heritage. It will not simply go away in the face of a democratic national constitution. Building a participatory, inclusive democratic culture is a long term process of cultural change. Schools, homes, communities and the workplace have distinctive and mutually supportive roles to play in this†. Ramphele’s statement addresses the topic of this assignment in more than one aspect. Not only is South Africa as a democratic union in its infancy in comparison to global democratic practices, but is the way in which we approach, and are approached by the international community, a new-fangled experience. South Africans as a whole have to deal with its own internal multi-cultural aspects, as well as the exposure to international cultures simultaneously, which is more apparent as to why a public relations manager should be able to act as a cultural intermediary. George (2003:Online) highlight this aspect, stating that by â€Å"understanding the cultural uniqueness of a country enables a public relations practitioner to identify the most effective message, format, channel of communication, and spokesperson to deliver that message. It is noticeable from the above that, in order to communicate effectively to its publics, the public relations practitioner must be able to understand and interpret multicultural identities. 4. 3. 1 Culture and cultural identities Samovar, Porter and McDaniel (2007:123-125) argues that cultural identity is a focal element in intercultural communication. An individual’s culture shapes his or her understanding and expectations as to which is the correct communication practices for various social settings – some which may be appropriate to one culture, may be inappropriate in another. Issues of identity can be expected to remain – and perhaps become more – complex as multiculturalism increasingly characterizes contemporary society. It is clear, however, that the old understanding of a fixed cultural identity or ethnicity is outdated, and identity is rapidly becoming more of and â€Å"articulated negotiation between what you call yourself and what other people are willing to call you†. But regardless of what form they may take or how they are achieved, your identities will remain a consequence of culture. Cultural differences appear in many ways and in many forms along a set of key dimensions. Nolan (1999:5-6) list six variables on which cultural differences can be distinguished: Perceptions: People from different cultures do not necessarily see the same things, even when everyone is looking in the same di rection. Interpretations: People do not select, interpret, or remember what they see in the same way, even when they see the same thing. Facts: Because people from different cultures have different definitions of the situation, they use different pieces of information in their thinking. Goals: People from different cultures may have quite different purposes or destinations in mind. Methods: Even when destinations are the same, people may have different ways of getting there. Values: People from different cultures apply very different standards in their evaluations of individuals, situations, behaviors and outcomes. Although Nolan’s variables appear to be overtly simplified, these variables could be a good starting point when approaching multi-cultural studies. However, the most popular advance to cultural studies stems from the work of anthropologist, Edward T. Hall who did pioneering work in multi-cultural research such as proxemics, a study of perception and the use of space between gender and culture. For example: there are important cultural rules and boundaries between the sexes, which mean we cannot move about as we would wish to think we can. Different cultures have differing norms and attitudes towards personal space and how closely people stand to each other when communicating. More intimate communications have different norms. If someone breaks the norm in any given situation it might be interpreted as threatening or unfriendly. Hall also found that different cultures have different norms to do with time, friendship, business, written and oral agreements. Spatial zones are different for women and men. Women initially approach more closely, prefer side-by-side conversations, allow other women to be closer than men, whilst men have more face-to-face conversations, and tend to stand closer to women than women feel comfortable with. ( onepine. info/mcult2. tm) More appropriate to this assignment though, is Hall’s conceptualization of high and low context cultural factors. In essence, in a high-context culture, there are many contextual elements that help people to understand the rules. As a result, much is taken for granted. This can be very confusing for a person who does not understand the unwritten rules of the specific culture. In a low-context culture, very little is taken for granted. Whilst this means that more explanation is needed, it also means there is less chance of misunderstanding, particularly when visitors are present. The application of Hall’s high- and low-context cultures is explained in table 2: Table 2: Hall’s high and low context culture Factor High-context culture Low-context culture Overtness of messagesMany covert and implicit messages, with use of metaphor and reading between the linesMany overt and explicit messages that is simple and clear Locus of control and attribution for failureInner locus of control and personal acceptance for failure Outer locus of control and blame of others for failure Use of non-verbal ommunicationMuch nonverbal communicationMore focus on verbal communication than body language Expression of reactionReserved, inward reactionsVisible, external, outward reaction Cohesion and separation of groupsStrong distinction between in-group and out-group Strong sense of familyFlexible and open grouping patterns, changing as needed People bonds Strong people bonds with affiliation to family and communityFragile bonds between people with little sense of loyalty Level of commitment to relationshipsHigh commitment to long-term relationships Relationship more important than taskLow commitment to relationship Task more important than relationships Flexibility of time Time is open and flexible Process is more important than productTime is highly organized Product is more important than process (http://changingminds. org/explanations/culture/hall_culture. htm) Applying the preceding two concepts as is to South Africa’s multi-cultural community would be rather complicated. The diverse compilation of cultures in South Africa simply does not allow for a â€Å"yes or no† answer. It would be required to analyze each of the eleven cultures in the country, including the free inflow of neighboring nationalities, in order to devise a suitable paradigm from which an applicable variable could be devised. This seems a rather daunting challenge. How then, to proceed to an acceptable, predictable, and definable course? Hannerz (2001:58) suggest that â€Å"we need a counter-image to that of the cultural mosaic, one that does not take for granted the boundedness of cultures and their simple relationship to populations and territories, but allows as a point of departure a more open, interconnected world. † To achieve that, and to move above the constraints of a multi-cultural collective, the student consulted Lull’s concept of a â€Å"superculture† (see fig. 1). According to Lull (2001:132-163), contemporary cultural conditions â€Å"appear to only exacerbate the confusion, isolation, and existential despair. The historically unparalleled development of communications technology and the sweep of globalization that surrounds us today are changing the very nature and meaning of culture. A superculture refers to a cultural mode that is above other modes, has a higher rank, quality and abundance than is reflected in other conceptions of culture. † It certainly exceeds the norms which typify and limit traditional ways of thinking about culture. Supercultures are composed in part of symbolic content that is made available by super media. The question immediately rises as to how cultural identities, for instance those officially recognized within South Africa’s geographical borders, fit into the concept of a superculture? The answer can be derived to from Lull’s explanation: â€Å"The super culture is the cultural matrix that individuals create for themselves in a world where access to ‘distant’ cultural resources has expanded enormously. At the same time, however, the superculture embodies traditional or ‘close’ cultural resources too – the values and social practices characteristic of ‘local’ cultures as they are learned and reproduced by individuals and group. The essence of the supercultures resides in the dynamic interfaces that link and mediates the available cultural spheres. † (Lull, 2001:132) Figure 1: Major components of Lull’s superculture (Lull, 2001: 139-157) To conclude the section on culture: in order to appropriately apply communication between multi-cultural identities, which in this instance signify the public relation practitioner and his or her publics, the student propose the implementation of Grunig’s two-way symmetrical model which â€Å"use communication to negotiate with publics, resolve conflict, and promote mutual understanding and respect between the organization and its public(s). † (http://iml. jou. ufl. edu). 5. Conclusion Friedman (2005:324-325) noted that â€Å"to reduce a country’s economic performance to culture alone is ridiculous, but to analyze a country’s economic performance without reference to culture, is equally ridiculous. As the world goes flat (globalize) , and more and more of the tools of collaboration get distributed and commoditized, the gap between cultures that have the will, the way and the focus to quickly adopt these new tools and apply them, and those that do not, will matter more. The differences between the two will become more amplified. Cultures that is open and willing to change, have huge advantage in this world. † Not only is Friedman’s statement applicable to a global economy, but is it also applicable to the global interaction of public relations practitioners. In addition, Jansoozi and Koper (2006:219-225) states that â€Å"public relations communication techniques have been forced to change as a result of globalization. The biggest challenge for public relations practitioners will be crossing language and cultural barriers. Often the subtleties of cultural difference are overlooked in the multinational’s own home country. Business organizations are realizing the importance of intercultural communication, even within the same national boundaries. Immigration and guest workers have altered the homogeneity of many countries and cultures. † It is within this framework (and with the support of quotations from authoritive source quoted in this assignment) that the student concludes: a purely western form of public relations practices no longer exists. As a result of globalization and the multi-national exposure that accompanies globalization, the public relations practitioner has inevitably become, amongst other, a cultural intermediary. The contemporary public relations practitioner’s communication is no longer restrained to the geographical, economic and cultural boundaries of his or her own country. Not only is the public relations practitioner able to communicate instantaneously on a global magnitude, but it is required of the practitioner to understand and interpret the culture of the publics which he or she communicates with. Global interaction demands that the public relations practitioner be aware of and implement trans-national customs and practices in the communication process. 6. Recommendation Exploring a topic such as culture and the effects it has on the process of communication globally, opens to a vast field of research. There are several factors that need to be explored in such a research project. For instance, the dynamics of a post-modern society, a globalized economic structure and the multi-cultural identities that accompanies such an economic structure, which all cannot possibly come to its fulfilment in a ten-page assignment. As Ihator (2000:44) clearly states: â€Å"The recognition of the cultural patterns of the world may be one positive stem in the understanding of the global publics. It behooves, therefore, international PR practitioners and researchers to use knowledge gained from various academic disciplines to adequately and effectively communicate with global constituencies†. Bibliography (Author unknown). S. a. Dictionary results – Hermeneutics [Online]. Available from: http://encarta. msn. com/encnet/features/dictionary/DictionaryResults. [Accessed: 05/04/2007]. (Author unknown). S. a. Edward T. Hall – The silent language [Online]. Available from: onepine. info/mcult2. htm. [Accessed: 10/04/2008]. (Author unknown). S. a. Globalization issues [Online]. Available from: sociology. emory. edu/globalization/issues01. html. [Accessed: 10/04/2008]. (Author unknown). S. a. Globalization theories [Online]. Available from: sociology. emory. edu/globalization/theories01. html. [Accessed: 10/04/2008]. (Author unknown). S. a. Three Major Perspectives in Sociology [Online]. Available from: cliffsnotes. com/WileyCDA/CliffsReviewTopic/Three-Major-Perspectives-in-Sociology. topicArticleId-26957,articleId-26837. html. [Accessed: 05/06/2008]. (Author unknown). S. a. Science Quotes [Online]. Available from: quotelady. com/subjects/science. html. [Accessed: 05/06/2008]. (Author unknown). S. a. Sir William Lawrence Bragg [Online]. Available from: britannica. com. [Accessed: 26/04/2008]. (Author unknown). S. a. The Importance of the Four Models of Public Relations [Online]. Available from: http://iml. jou. ufl. edu/projects/Fall99/Westbrook/models. htm. [Accessed: 07/03/2008]. BABBIE, E. MOUTON, J. 2001. The practice of social research. South African ed. Cape Town: Oxford University Press. DE VOS, A. S. , SCHULZE, S. PATEL, L. 2005. The sciences and the professions. In: De Vos, A. S. (ed. ) Research at grass roots: for the social sciences and human service professions. 3rd ed. Pretoria: Van Schaik:3-26. FRIEDMAN, T. L. 2005. The world is flat a brief history of the twenty-first century. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. GEORGE, A. M. 2003. Teaching culture: The challenges and opportunities of international public relations. Business communication quarterly, 66[Online]. Available from: www. questia. com. [Accessed: 01/06/08]. GUDYKUNST, W. B. 1993. Toward a theory of effective interpersonal and intergroup communication. International and intercultural communication annual, 17:33-71. HANNERZ, U. 2001. Thinking about culture in a global ecumene. In: LULL, J. (ed. ) Culture in the communication age. London: Routledge:54-71. IHATOR, A. 2000. Understanding the cultural patterns of the world – an imperative in implementing strategic international PR programs. Public Relations Quaterly, Winter:38-44. (Class handout: Public Relations Management IV, 24/05/2008). JANOOZI, J. KOPER, E. 2006. Implications of globalization for the public relations practice. Comunicacao e Sociedade, 8, 2005:219-225 [Online]. Available from: revcom2. portcom. intercom. org. br/index. php/cs_um/ article/ viewFile/4734/4448. [Accessed: 05/06/2008]. KAPPELMAN, T. 2001. Marshall McLuhan: â€Å"The Medium is the Message [Online]. Available from: leaderu. com/orgs/probe/docs/mcluhan. html#text2. [Accessed: 06/08/2007]. LEARY, M. R. MILLER, R. S. 2000. Self-presentational perspectives on personal relationships. In: Ickes, W. Duck, W. (eds. ) The social psychology of personal relationships. New York: Wiley:129-155. LULL, J. 2001. Superculture for the communication age. In: Lull, J. (ed. ) Culture in the communication age. London: Routledge: 132-163. McCLELLAND, K. 2000. Introduction to theories [Online]. Available from: http://web. grinnell. edu/courses/soc/s00/soc111-01/IntroTheories. html. [Accessed: 01/06/2008]. NOLAN, R. W. 1999. Communicating and Adapting across Cultures: Living and Working in the Global Village [Online]. Available from: www. questia. com. Accessed: 20/06/2008. PAPASTEFANOU, N. 2008. Assignment 2: the public relations practitioner as cultural intermediary. Tshwane University of Technology: Pretoria. PAPASTEFANOU, N. 2007. Module 1: communication research and theory (CSC400T). Pretoria: Tshwane University of Technology. PAPASTEFANOU, N. 2008. Module 2: culture and related issues. Tshwane

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

A Delocalized Electron Defined in Chemistry

A Delocalized Electron Defined in Chemistry A delocalized electron is an electron in an  atom, ion or molecule not associated with any single atom or a single covalent bond. In a ring structure, delocalized electrons are indicated by drawing a circle rather than single and double bonds. This means the electrons are equally likely to be anywhere along the chemical bond.Delocalized electrons contribute to the conductivity of the atom, ion, or molecule. Materials with many delocalized electrons tend to be highly conductive. Delocalized Electron Examples In a benzene molecule, for example, the electrical forces on the electrons are uniform across the molecule. The delocalization produces what is called a resonance structure. Delocalized electrons are also commonly seen in solid metals, where they form a sea of electrons that are free to move throughout the material. This is why metals are typically excellent electrical conductors. In the crystal structure of a diamond, the four outer electrons of each carbon atom participate in covalent bonding (are localized). Contrast this with bonding in graphite, another form of pure carbon. In graphite, only three of the four outer electrons are covalently bonded to other carbon atoms. Each carbon atom has a delocalized electron that participates in chemical bonding  but is free to move throughout the plane of the molecule. While the electrons are delocalized, graphite is a planar shape, so the molecule conducts electricity along the plane, but not perpendicular to it.